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Welcome to the RTF 318 Wiki!

THE LENS

Four main functions controlled by the lens:

Depth of Focus

Fast lenses and slow lenses

Hyperfocal Distance

Depth of Field and Format

Depth of field charts

The lens and perspective

The lens and perception (size constancy)

STILL PHOTOGRAPHY

Basic operations of a single lens reflex 35mm still camera

Exposure and interrelationships of shutter, aperture and film speed

VISUAL DESIGN AND STRUCTURE

THE FRAME AND ASPECT RATIO

The 7 visual components:

1) Space

2) Line

3) Shape

  • Two-dimensional: circle, square, triangle
  • Three-dimensional: sphere, cube, pyramid

4) Tone

Control though:

  • art direction (reflective)
  • lighting (incident)
  • exposure (less selective)

Coincidence and Non-coincidence

5) Color

6) Movement

7) Rhythm

Graphing Visual Structure

Graphing Components + Subcomponents

Rule of thirds

Balance

Headroom

Eyeroom (looking room)

Aspect ratio

THE SHOT

Three Basic Shots

Hybrids and Hollywood slang

The shot described by angle

The shot described by movement

The shot described in terms of coverage

SCREEN GRAMMAR

Rabiger's approach to screen grammar as a reproduction of human consciousness

Master Scene Technique

Shot reverse shot technique

The 180 degree rule

Screen direction

DIRECTORIAL COMMUNICATION TOOLS

Shotlists

Overheads

Lined scripts

Storyboards

SCREENWRITING AND DOCUMENTARY PROPOSALS

Foundations: Premise , treatment , step outline

Formatting

Story and thematic Archetypes

The fatal flaw - passivity

The Vonnegut formula

Documentary research and the documentary proposal

SCRIPT ANALYSIS

Editing Screen Directions

First impressions

The immutables - facts and images

Imaginative choices (antecedent action, objectives and actions, what's at stake, subtext etc)

Events

Beats

FILM/VIDEO INTERFACE

Perception of motion

Film Camera

The Film Image

Video

CONTINUITY/SHOOTING TO EDIT

Continuity shooting

Types of continuity

Maintaining continuity

LIGHTING

Three-point lighting

Other lights (eye-light, set light, kicker, practicals etc.)

High-key lighting

Low-key lighting

Qualities of light (specular, diffused etc.)

Kelvin scale and color temperature

Incident light meters

Reflective light meters

Footcandles

Lighting ratios

Choosing an F-stop

Latitude

Electricity Basics : Watts ÷ Volts = Amps

Inverse square rule

EDITING

Murch's Rule of Six :

  • Emotion (51%)
  • Story (23%),
  • Rhythm (10%),
  • Eye-trace (7%),
  • Two-dimensional plane of screen (5%)
  • Three-dimensional plane of screen (4%)

Classic Hollywood Continuity Editing

Montage

Jump cuts

Misdirection

Seeing Around the Edge of the Frame

Why cuts work

Dragnet system of editing

Post Workflow

Online - offline

Three-point editing

THE DIRECTOR/ACTOR DYNAMIC

The System and the Method: Stanislavsky to Griffith to Kazan

The actor's preparation

System of wants: life needs, objectives and actions

The crowbars of directing

Listening

Moment-to-moment

Personalization

Casting :

Getting actors:

Casting Directors v. Talent Agents

Stages of an audition

Rehearsal technique

CREW ROLES

Above the line

Below the line

Crew positions and functions

OBJECTIVE SOUND

Sound and audio distinguished (sound = acoustical energy, audio=electrical signals and

various types of recordings)

Properties of physical sound:

Influences on Sound Propagation

Doppler shift

Room acoustics/the three sound fields:

Movies and the three sound fields

  • 1920s: Exhibition in reverberant spaces, production on anechoic stages
  • Now: "dead" theatres and relatively "live" shooting conditions

Noise: unwanted sound added to the original sound (airborne and structure-borne)

Distortion: unwanted modification of the original sound

PSYCHOACOUSTICS

Hearing Conservation

Auditory Sensitivity and Frequency (most sensitive in 2-4 kHz range)

Equal Loudness Curves (more energy is required at lower frequencies to sound equally as loud as midrange and higher frequency sounds)

Loudness effect (at a lower level, sound seems to lack bass when compared with playing it as its original level)

Loudness vs Time (it takes a high level sound 1-8 frames at 24 fps to reach its full perceived loudness)

Frequency masking

Temporal masking

Spatial perception

Separating Sounds :

Auditory streams

Speech perception : panning dialogue across the screen to match action v. centering it

AUDIO FUNDAMENTALS

Frequency response

Dynamic Range

Signal processing

Signal path

Digital audio:

SOUND RECORDING

Microphones:

Audio Connectors and Inputs

Single System + Double System Recording

Slates

Calling Shots

*Recorders*

  • Analog reel to reel
  • Digital Audio Recorders
  • Hard drive recorders
  • Features of recorders (mic inputs, line inputs and outputs, record level adjustments, Volume Unit and Peak Program Meters etc)

Record levels

Audio Mixers (between the mics and the recorder)

Sound perspective

Phase cancellation, 3-1 rule

Proximity effect

Worldizing

SOUND DESIGN

Objective vs. Subjective Sound

Diegetic sound / Non-diegetic sound

Sound design philosophy

Withholding information

SOUND EDITING

Traditional (southern California) approach: vertical â?? one editor per reel

Alternative (northern California) approach: horizontal â?? editors cut like fx in all reels

Dialogue

  • Production
  • Wild lines
  • ADR (automated dialogue replacement)
  • Loop group
  • Voice over
  • Presence/fill/room tone (space between actor's lines or space between various things going on at start and end of takes or room tone

Sound effects: non-musical, non-dialogue sounds from the environment

Checkerboarding

Avid Audio Basics

INTRODUCTION TO DOCUMENTARY

Traditional narration-based documentary

Personal essay documentary

Cinema Véritécinema verite

Historical documentary and problems of access

MUSIC VIDEO

Traditions: Busby Berkeley to the Beatles to Bowie

Cinematic v. Photographic

Performance based/non-performance based

Laws of Note

Down here I am going to link to all of the "laws" and "rules" that I think we will definitely need to know.

Inverse Square Law

Murch's Law of six

Rule of Thirds

3-1 Rule

100 rule

*Review with this quiz!*

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