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Welcome to the RTF 318 Wiki!

THE LENS

Four main functions controlled by the lens:

Depth of Focus

Fast lenses and slow lenses

Hyperfocal Distance

Depth of Field and Format

Depth of field charts

The lens and perspective

The lens and perception (size constancy)

STILL PHOTOGRAPHY

Basic operations of a single lens reflex 35mm still camera

Exposure and interrelationships of shutter, aperture and film speed

VISUAL DESIGN AND STRUCTURE

THE FRAME AND ASPECT RATIO

The 7 visual components:

1) Space

2) Line

3) Shape

  • Two-dimensional: circle, square, triangle
  • Three-dimensional: sphere, cube, pyramid

4) Tone

Control though:

  • art direction (reflective)
  • lighting (incident)
  • exposure (less selective)

Coincidence and Non-coincidence

5) Color

6) Movement

7) Rhythm

Graphing Visual Structure

Graphing Components + Subcomponents

Rule of thirds

Balance

Headroom

Eyeroom (looking room)

Aspect ratio

THE SHOT

Three Basic Shots

Hybrids and Hollywood slang

The shot described by angle

The shot described by movement

The shot described in terms of coverage

SCREEN GRAMMAR

Rabiger's approach to screen grammar as a reproduction of human consciousness

Master Scene Technique

Shot reverse shot technique

The 180 degree rule

Screen direction

DIRECTORIAL COMMUNICATION TOOLS

Shotlists

Overheads

Lined scripts

Storyboards

SCREENWRITING AND DOCUMENTARY PROPOSALS

Foundations: Premise , treatment , step outline

Formatting

Story and thematic Archetypes

The fatal flaw - passivity

The Vonnegut formula

Documentary research and the documentary proposal

SCRIPT ANALYSIS

Editing Screen Directions

First impressions

The immutables - facts and images

Imaginative choices (antecedent action, objectives and actions, what's at stake, subtext etc)

Events

Beats

FILM/VIDEO INTERFACE

Perception of motion

Film Camera

The Film Image

Video

CONTINUITY/SHOOTING TO EDIT

Continuity shooting

Types of continuity

Maintaining continuity

LIGHTING

Three-point lighting

Other lights (eye-light, set light, kicker, practicals etc.)

High-key lighting

Low-key lighting

Qualities of light (specular, diffused etc.)

Kelvin scale and color temperature

Incident light meters

Reflective light meters

Footcandles

Lighting ratios

Choosing an F-stop

Latitude

Electricity Basics : Watts ÷ Volts = Amps

Inverse square rule

EDITING

Murch's Rule of Six :

  • Emotion (51%)
  • Story (23%),
  • Rhythm (10%),
  • Eye-trace (7%),
  • Two-dimensional plane of screen (5%)
  • Three-dimensional plane of screen (4%)

Classic Hollywood Continuity Editing

Montage

Jump cuts

Misdirection

Seeing Around the Edge of the Frame

Why cuts work

Dragnet system of editing

Post Workflow

Online - offline

Three-point editing

THE DIRECTOR/ACTOR DYNAMIC

The System and the Method: Stanislavsky to Griffith to Kazan

The actor's preparation

System of wants: life needs, objectives and actions

The crowbars of directing

Listening

Moment-to-moment

Personalization

Casting :

Getting actors:

Casting Directors v. Talent Agents

Stages of an audition

Rehearsal technique

CREW ROLES

Above the line

Below the line

Crew positions and functions

OBJECTIVE SOUND

Sound and audio distinguished (sound = acoustical energy, audio=electrical signals and

various types of recordings)

Properties of physical sound:

Influences on Sound Propagation

Doppler shift

Room acoustics/the three sound fields:

Movies and the three sound fields

  • 1920s: Exhibition in reverberant spaces, production on anechoic stages
  • Now: "dead" theatres and relatively "live" shooting conditions

Noise: unwanted sound added to the original sound (airborne and structure-borne)

Distortion: unwanted modification of the original sound

PSYCHOACOUSTICS

Hearing Conservation

Auditory Sensitivity and Frequency (most sensitive in 2-4 kHz range)

Equal Loudness Curves (more energy is required at lower frequencies to sound equally as loud as midrange and higher frequency sounds)

Loudness effect (at a lower level, sound seems to lack bass when compared with playing it as its original level)

Loudness vs Time (it takes a high level sound 1-8 frames at 24 fps to reach its full perceived loudness)

Frequency masking

Temporal masking

Spatial perception

Separating Sounds :

Auditory streams

Speech perception : panning dialogue across the screen to match action v. centering it

AUDIO FUNDAMENTALS

Frequency response

Dynamic Range

Signal processing

Signal path

Digital audio:

SOUND RECORDING

Microphones:

Audio Connectors and Inputs

Single System + Double System Recording

Slates

Calling Shots

*Recorders*

  • Analog reel to reel
  • Digital Audio Recorders
  • Hard drive recorders
  • Features of recorders (mic inputs, line inputs and outputs, record level adjustments, Volume Unit and Peak Program Meters etc)

Record levels

Audio Mixers (between the mics and the recorder)

Sound perspective

Phase cancellation, 3-1 rule

Proximity effect

Worldizing

SOUND DESIGN

Objective vs. Subjective Sound

Diegetic sound / Non-diegetic sound

Sound design philosophy

Withholding information

SOUND EDITING

Traditional (southern California) approach: vertical â?? one editor per reel

Alternative (northern California) approach: horizontal â?? editors cut like fx in all reels

Dialogue

  • Production
  • Wild lines
  • ADR (automated dialogue replacement)
  • Loop group
  • Voice over
  • Presence/fill/room tone (space between actor's lines or space between various things going on at start and end of takes or room tone

Sound effects: non-musical, non-dialogue sounds from the environment

Checkerboarding

Avid Audio Basics

INTRODUCTION TO DOCUMENTARY

Traditional narration-based documentary

Personal essay documentary

Cinema Véritécinema verite

Historical documentary and problems of access

MUSIC VIDEO

Traditions: Busby Berkeley to the Beatles to Bowie

Cinematic v. Photographic

Performance based/non-performance based

Laws of Note

Down here I am going to link to all of the "laws" and "rules" that I think we will definitely need to know.

Inverse Square Law

Murch's Law of six

Rule of Thirds

3-1 Rule

100 rule

*Review with this quiz!*

  • No labels
Page: 100 Rule Page: Above the line Page: Absorption Page: Action Page: Actor's ability Page: Ambient backgrounds Page: Ambiguous Page: Amplitude Page: Analog and digital recording Page: Archetypes Page: Audience Point of Attention Page: Audio Connectors and Inputs Page: Audio Mixers Page: Auditions Page: Auditory Sensitivity and Frequency Page: Auditory streams Page: Avid Audio Basics Page: Beats Page: Below the line Page: Brightness Page: Calculating Lengths for Film Page: Calling Shots Page: Camera Movement Page: Casting Page: Casting relationships Page: Changing Sizes and Angles Page: Checkerboarding Page: Choosing an F-stop Page: Cinéma Vérité Page: Classic Hollywood Continuity Editing Page: Classified by construction Page: Classified by Directionality Page: Classified by positioning Page: closed Page: Coincidence and Non-coincidence Page: Color Balance Page: Color Space Page: Color Temperature and filters Page: Compression Page: Continuity shooting Page: Costumes and Makeup Page: Creating a New Wiki Page Page: Depth Cues Page: Depth of field Page: Depth of Field and Format Page: Depth of field charts Page: Depth of Focus Page: Diegetic sound Page: Diffraction Page: Directibility Page: Direct sound Page: Discrete Reflections Page: Doppler shift Page: Dragnet - System of Editing Page: Dynamic Range Page: Editing Screen Directions Page: Electricity Basics Page: Emotional Qualities Page: Equal Loudness Curves Page: Events Page: Exposure and interrelationships of shutter, aperture and film speed Page: Exposure time and Shutter angle formula Page: Eyeline Page: Eyeroom (looking room) Page: Fast lenses and slow lenses Page: Film layers - Black + White Page: Film Layers - Color Page: First impressions Page: Flex files Page: focal length Page: Focus and Depth of field Page: Focus Distance Page: Foley Page: Footcandles Page: Formatting Page: Four main Page: fp Page: Frame rates Page: Frequency masking Page: Frequency response Page: Graphing Components + Subcomponents Page: Graphing Visual Structure Page: Hard fx Page: Headroom Page: Hearing Conservation Page: High Angle Page: High-key lighting Page: Historical documentary and problems of access Page: Hue Page: Hybrids and Hollywood slang Page: Hyperfocal Distance Page: Image Area Page: Image Focus Page: Imaginative choices Page: Incident light meters Page: Influence of Sight Page: Inserts + Cutaways Page: Intermittent movement Page: Inverse square rule Page: Jump cuts Page: Keeping track of film - edge Page: Keeping track of video - drop frame and non-drop frame timecode Page: Kelvin scale and color temperature Page: Latitude Page: Lens Opening Page: Lighting Page: Lighting ratios Page: Lined scripts Page: Listening Page: Localization Page: Localization best in horizontal plane Page: Loudness effect Page: Loudness vs Time Page: Low-key lighting Page: Master Scene Technique Page: Match Cuts Page: Medium Page: Misdirection Page: Montage Page: Murch's Rule of Six Page: Non-diegetic sound Page: Objective vs. Subjective Sound Page: Online - offline Page: Open Page: Other lights Page: Overcranking and Undercranking Page: Overheads Page: Overlapping action Page: Perception of motion Page: Performance Page: Personal essay documentary Page: Phase cancellation, 3-1 rule Page: Post Workflow Page: Precedence effect Page: Premise Page: Propagation Page: Props Page: Proximity effect Page: Pulldown claw Page: Qualities of light Page: Quantity of light Page: Quantizing Page: Rabiger's approach to screen grammar as a reproduction of human consciousness Page: recognizable Page: Recorders Page: Record levels Page: Reflection Page: Reflective light meters Page: Rehearsal technique Page: Resolution Page: Reverberant field Page: Reverberation time Page: Review PPT Page: Rhythm Page: Role of the script supervisor Page: Rule of thirds Page: Sampling Page: SandBox Page: Saturation Page: Scheduling Page: Screen direction Page: Seeing Around the Edge of the Frame Page: Separating Sounds Page: Shooting out of sequence Page: Shotlists Page: Shot reverse shot technique Page: Signal path Page: Signal processing Page: Single System + Double System Recording Page: Slates Page: Sound Page: Sound design philosophy Page: Sound perspective Page: Sound Resolution Page: Source radiation pattern Page: Spatial perception Page: Speech perception Page: Speed Page: Stages of an audition Page: step outline Page: Storyboards Page: Tempo Page: Temporal masking Page: The 180 degree rule Page: The cocktail party effect Page: The crowbars of directing Page: The fatal flaw - passivity Page: The immutables - facts and images Page: The lens and perception (size constancy) Page: The lens and perspective Page: The script supervisor Page: The shot described by angle Page: The shot described by movement Page: The shot described in terms of coverage Page: The Vonnegut formula Page: Three Basic Shots Page: Three-point editing Page: Three-point lighting Page: Timbre Page: Tone Page: Traditional narration-based documentary Page: treatment Page: Video controls Page: Video process Page: Video standards - NTSC, PAL Page: Wavelength and Frequency Page: What Wiki Is Page: When film and video collide - the 3-2 pulldown Page: Whether the actor is right for the part Page: Why cuts work Page: Withholding information Page: Worldizing